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Research activity per year

Personal profile

Research Biography

I lead the retinalbiomarkers group which consists of a team of clinicians, visual electrophysiologists, and biomedical engineers, that aims to identify novel functional and structural retinal biomarkers for conditions affecting the central nervous system. Our main focus is on neurodevelopmental conditions and cerebral vision impairment and peripheral vasculopathies.  We apply signal analysis and machine learning and a multiverse statistical approach to improve classification with members based in the UK, Germany, and the US. 

Research Expertise

Expertise in Visual Electrophysiology (ERG and EOG).

Signal Analysis- Discrete and Continuous Wavelet Transform (DWT/CWT) and Variable Frequency Complex Demodulation (VFCDM)

Cell culture Primary and cell lines

Calcium Imaging (Flura)

Molecular Biology


Research Interests

Retinal Biomarker Discovery in neurodevelopmental disorders

Signal Analysis

Machine Learning (AI)

Supervised Students Successes

  • April 2024 Lynne Loh -PhD
  • Mar 2020 Sheela Kumaran - PhD
  • Dec 2018 Himal Kandel - PhD

Education/Academic qualification

Postgraduate Certificate, Ocular Therapeutics, Australian College of Optometry

Award Date: 17 Jun 2020

PhD, City University of London

Award Date: 28 Feb 2007

Bachelor of Science, Optometry, University of Melbourne

Award Date: 31 Mar 1991


  • Registered

Research Areas

  • Healthy start to life
  • Optometry

Supervisory Interests

  • Electrophysiology
  • Neurodevelopment
  • Neurophysiology
  • Vision
  • Cognitive neuroscience


  • RE Ophthalmology
  • retina
  • biomarker
  • machine learning
  • signal analysis
  • electrophysiology
  • RC0321 Neuroscience. Biological psychiatry. Neuropsychiatry
  • autism
  • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder



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