Dr Paulo E. Santos


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Personal profile

Research Interests

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is currently one of the fastest growing areas of computer science. In the past few years the interest in this field has transcended academic development, achieving a variety of applications, potentially influencing every modern economic activity. Much of this development is due to the recent availability of large data sets, as well as of computational resources, and is linked to a single field of AI, namely Machine Learning (ML). This fast development brought notoriety to the field, however, being confined to a single subarea of AI, it is deemed to achieve a standpoint, since the outputs of ML systems do not have explicit justifications that allow them to be audited. Therefore, machine learning algorithms cannot be fully trusted when dealing with human (sensitive) data. The key reason for the lack of justification for the ML outputs is that these algorithms have been largely developed independently from the AI subfield of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning. The future development of AI should consider the development of machine learning systems with knowledge representation capabilities allowing them to provide an explanation to their computed decisions. A large part of my current research has been devoted exactly at developing feasible and efficient combinations of machine learning algorithms (specially convolutional neural networks and reinforcement learning) with high-level ontologies capable of describing the outputs of ML algorithms. This facilitates reasoning about ML decisions and the inference of new facts about the underlying domain. In particular, I have been investigating how the output of a convolutional neural network, that associates visual scenes to English sentences, could be explained by means of a spatial ontology representing the domain objects and their attributes. 

Education/Academic qualification

PhD, Imperial College London

Award Date: 20 Nov 2003

Master of Science, University of Amsterdam

Award Date: 8 Oct 1998

Master of Science, Universidade de Sao Paulo

Award Date: 10 Jul 1995

Bachelor (Honours), Universidade de Sao Paulo

Award Date: 30 Nov 1993

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Research Output

Qualitative case-based reasoning and learning

Homem, T. P. D., Santos, P. E., Reali Costa, A. H., da Costa Bianchi, R. A. & Lopez de Mantaras, R., Jun 2020, In : Artificial Intelligence. 283, 23 p., 103258.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  • Standpoint semantics for polysemy in spatial prepositions

    Rodrigues, E. J., Santos, P. E., Lopes, M., Bennett, B. & Oppenheimer, P. E., Mar 2020, In : Journal of Logic and Computation. 30, 2, p. 635-661 27 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  • Representation and retrieval of images by means of spatial relations between objects

    Nunes, D., Ferreira, L. A., Santos, P. E. & Pease, A., 1 Jan 2019, In : CEUR Workshop Proceedings. 2350

    Research output: Contribution to journalConference article

    Open Access
  • 1 Downloads (Pure)

    The knowledge of knots: an interdisciplinary literature review

    Santos, P. E., Cabalar, P. & Casati, R., 30 Sep 2019, In : Spatial Cognition and Computation. 19, 4, p. 334-358 25 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

  • A method for the online construction of the set of states of a Markov decision process using answer set programming

    Ferreira, L. A., Bianchi, R. A. C., Santos, P. E. & de Mantaras, R. L., 30 May 2018, Recent Trends and Future Technology in Applied Intelligence - 31st International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Other Applications of Applied Intelligent Systems, IEA/AIE 2018, Proceedings. Ait Mohamed, O., Mouhoub, M., Sadaoui, S. & Ali, M. (eds.). Springer-Verlag, p. 3-15 13 p. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics); vol. 10868 LNAI).

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

  • 1 Citation (Scopus)