Integration of a third component into a single-junction polymer solar cell (PSC) is regarded as an attractive strategy to enhance the performance of PSCs. Although binary all-polymer solar cells (all-PSCs) have recently emerged with compelling power conversion efficiencies (PCEs), the PCEs of ternary all-PSCs still lag behind those of the state-of-the-art binary all-PSCs, and the advantages of ternary systems are not fully exploited. In this work, we realize high-performance ternary all-PSCs with record-breaking PCEs of 9% and high fill factors (FF) of over 0.7 for both conventional and inverted devices. The improved photovoltaic performance benefits from the synergistic effects of extended absorption, more efficient charge generation, optimal polymer orientations and suppressed recombination losses compared to the binary all-PSCs, as evidenced by a set of experimental techniques. The results provide new insights for developing high-performance ternary all-PSCs by choosing appropriate donor and acceptor polymers to overcome limitations in absorption, by affording good miscibility, and by benefiting from charge and energy transfer mechanisms for efficient charge generation.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We thank the EU projects OSNIRO (FP7-PEOPLE-2013-ITN, Grant agreement no.: 607585) and SUNFLOWER (FP7-ICT-2011-7, Grant number: 287594), the Swedish Research Council, the Swedish Research Council Formas, the Swedish Energy Agency and Chalmers Area of Advance Energy and the COST Action StableNextSol. MP1307 for financial support. R. A. J. J acknowledges funding from the European Research Council under the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP/2007-2013)/ERC Grant Agreement no. 339031 and the Ministry of Education, Culture, and Science (NWO Gravity program 024.001.035). W. Z. and A. Y. acknowledge the Knut and Alice Wallenberg and Crafoord foundations. W. M. and Z. G. acknowledge financial support from the International Science Programme (ISP), Uppsala University, Sweden. X. M and W. M. acknowledge the support from the Ministry of Science and Technology (no. 2016YFA0200700) and NSFC (21504066, 21534003). We thank Dario Di Carlo Rasi for the IQE simulation. We thank Dr Harm van Eersel for using the python script to calculate the optical parameters in the IQE simulation. The research leading to these results received funding from the People Programme (Marie Curie Actions) of the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under REA grant agreement no. 608743. This publication reflects only the view of the authors and the European Union is not liable for any use that may be made of the information contained herein. X-ray data was acquired at beamlines 7.3.3 at the Advanced Light Source, which is supported by the Director, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. The authors thank Chenhui Zhu at beamline 7.3.3 for assistance with data acquisition.
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- soloar cells
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