A comprehensive guide to sperm recovery in infertile men with retrograde ejaculation

Sajal Gupta, Rakesh Sharma, Ashok Agarwal, Neel Parekh, Renata Finelli, Rupin Shah, Hussein Kandil, Ramadan Saleh, Mohamed Arafa, Edmund Ko, Mara Simopoulou, Armand Zini, Osvaldo Rajmil, Parviz Kavoussi, Keerti Singh, Rafael F. Ambar, Haitham Elbardisi, Pallav Sengupta, Marlon Martinez, Florence BoitrelleMarco G. Alves, Kareim Khalafalla, Shubhadeep Roychoudhury, Gian Maria Busetto, Jaime Gosalvez, Nicholas Tadros, Ayad Palani, Marcelo Gabriel Rodriguez, Christina Anagnostopoulou, Sava Micic, Lucia Rocco, Taymour Mostafa, Juan G. Alvarez, Sunil Jindal, Hassan Sallam, Israel Maldonado Rosas, Sheena E.M. Lewis, Sami AlSaid, Mesut Altan, Hyun Jun Park, Jonathan Ramsay, Sijo Parekattil, Marjan Sabbaghian, Kelton Tremellen, Paraskevi Vogiatzi, Mohammad Ali Sadighi Gilani, Donald P. Evenson, Giovanni M. Colpi

    Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

    7 Citations (Scopus)
    38 Downloads (Pure)


    Retrograde ejaculation (RE) is a condition defined as the backward flow of the semen during ejaculation, and when present can result in male infertility. RE may be partial or complete, resulting in either low seminal volume or complete absence of the ejaculate (dry ejaculate). RE can result from anatomic, neurological or pharmacological conditions. The treatment approaches outlined are determined by the cause. Alkalinizing urinary pH with oral medications or by adding sperm wash media into the bladder prior to ejaculation may preserve the viability of the sperm. This article provides a step-by-step guide to diagnose RE and the optimal techniques to retrieve sperm.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article numbere29
    Number of pages9
    JournalWorld Journal of Men's Health
    Publication statusPublished - 2021


    • Ejaculation
    • Infertility, male
    • Sperm count


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