The level of destruction caused by an earthquake depends on a variety of factors, such as magnitude, duration, intensity, time of occurrence, and underlying geological features, which may be mitigated and reduced by the level of preparedness of risk management measures. Geospatial technologies offer a means by which earthquake occurrence can be predicted or foreshadowed; managed in terms of levels of preparation related to land use planning; availability of emergency shelters, medical resources, and food supplies; and assessment of damage and remedial priorities. This literature review paper surveys the geospatial technologies employed in earthquake research and disaster management. The objectives of this review paper are to assess: (1) the role of the range of geospatial data types; (2) the application of geospatial technologies to the stages of an earthquake; (3) the geospatial techniques used in earthquake hazard, vulnerability, and risk analysis; and (4) to discuss the role of geospatial techniques in earthquakes and related disasters. The review covers past, current, and potential earthquake-related applications of geospatial technology, together with the challenges that limit the extent of usefulness and effectiveness. While the focus is mainly on geospatial technology applied to earthquake research and management in practice, it also has validity as a framework for natural disaster risk assessments, emergency management, mitigation, and remediation, in general.
- remote sensing