A diagnosis of the primary difference between EuroForMix and STRmix™

John Buckleton, Mateusz Susik, James M. Curran, Kevin Cheng, Duncan Taylor, Jo Anne Bright, Hannah Kelly, Richard Wivell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


There is interest in comparing the output, principally the likelihood ratio, from the two probabilistic genotyping software EuroForMix (EFM) and STRmix™. Many of these comparison studies are descriptive and make little or no effort to diagnose the cause of difference. There are fundamental differences between EFM and STRmix™ that are causative of the largest set of likelihood ratio differences. This set of differences is for false donors where there are many instances of LRs just above or below 1 for EFM that give much lower LRs in STRmix™. This is caused by the separate estimation of parameters such as allele height variance and mixture proportion using MLE under Hp and Ha for EFM. This can result in very different estimations of these parameters under Hp and Ha. It results in a departure from calibration for EFM in the region of LRs just above and below 1.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)40-51
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Forensic Sciences
Issue number1
Early online date27 Sept 2023
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2024


  • EuroForMix
  • forensic DNA
  • probabilistic genotyping
  • reliability
  • STRmix™
  • validation


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