A High-Protein Diet With Resistance Exercise Training Improves Weight Loss and Body Composition in Overweight and Obese Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

Thomas Wycherley, Manila Noakes, Peter Clifton, Xenia Cleanthous, Jennifer Keogh, Grant Brinkworth

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    Abstract

    OBJECTIVE - To evaluate the effects of two low-fat hypocaloric diets differing in the carbohydrate-to-protein ratio, with and without resistance exercise training (RT), on weight loss, body composition, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk outcomes in overweight/obese patients with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - A total of 83 men and women with type 2 diabetes (aged 56.1±7.5 years, BMI 35.4±4.6 kg/m2) were randomly assigned to an isocaloric, energy-restricted diet (female subjects 6 MJ/day, male subjects 7 MJ/day) of either standard carbohydrate (CON; carbohydrate:protein:fat 53:19:26) or high protein (HP; 43:33:22), with or without supervised RT (3 days/week) for 16 weeks. Body weight and composition, waist circumference (WC), and cardiometabolic risk markers were assessed. RESULTS - Fifty-nine participants completed the study. There was a significant group effect (P ≤ 0.04) for body weight, fat mass, and WC with the greatest reductions occuring in HP+RT (weight [CON: -8.6 ± 4.6 kg, HP: -9.0 ± 4.8 kg, CON+RT: -10.5 ± 5.1 kg, HP+RT: -13.8 ± 6.0 kg], fat mass [CON: -6.4 ± 3.4 kg, HP: -6.7 ± 4.0 kg, CON+RT: -7.9 ± 3.7 kg, HP+RT: -11.1±3.7 kg], and WC[CON: -8.2±4.6 cm, HP: -8.9±3.9 cm, CON+RT: -11.3 ± 4.6 cm, HP+RT: -13.7 ± 4.6 cm]). There was an overall reduction (P < 0.001) in fat-free mass (-2.0 ± 2.3 kg), blood pressure (-15/8 ± 10/6 mmHg), glucose (-2.1 ± 2.2 mmol/l), insulin (-4.7 ± 5.4 mU/l), A1C (-1.25 ± 0.94%), triglycerides (-0.47 ± 0.81 mmol/l), total cholesterol (-0.67±0.69 mmol/l), and LDL cholesterol (-0.37±0.53 mmol/l), with no difference between groups (P ≥ 0.17). CONCLUSIONS - An energy-restricted HP diet combined with RT achieved greater weight loss and more favorable changes in body composition. All treatments had similar improvements in glycemic control and CVD risk markers.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)969-976
    Number of pages8
    JournalDiabetes Care
    Volume33
    Issue number5
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - May 2010

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