A narrative review of proteinuria and albuminuria as clinical biomarkers in children

Nicholas G. Larkins, Armando T. Teixeira-Pinto, Jonathan C. Craig

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Proteinuria is an important biomarker commonly used to detect and manage kidney disease in children. There are now a variety of methods available to measure urinary protein loss, and physicians are faced with several contrasting strategies: 24-h or timed collection versus spot samples (first-morning or random), measurement of total urinary protein versus selective measurement of urinary albumin, unadjusted urine protein concentration versus protein-to-creatinine ratio and the use of dipstick versus laboratory-based methods. In this review, we will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of these different approaches. We will then summarise the evidence base for proteinuria as a clinical biomarker in different settings, including discussion of the current and potential role of measuring low-level albuminuria. Finally, we will highlight gaps in the literature and opportunities for further research into proteinuria among children.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)136-142
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2019


  • albuminuria
  • cardiovascular diseases
  • child
  • kidney
  • proteinuria


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