A Provably Secure Three-Factor Authentication Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

Tsu-Yang Wu, Lei Yang, Zhiyuan Lee, Shu-Chuan Chu, Saru Kumari, Sachin Kumar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)


The wireless sensor network is a network composed of sensor nodes self-organizing through the application of wireless communication technology. The application of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) requires high security, but the transmission of sensitive data may be exposed to the adversary. Therefore, to guarantee the security of information transmission, researchers propose numerous security authentication protocols. Recently, Wu et al. proposed a new three-factor authentication protocol for WSNs. However, we find that their protocol cannot resist key compromise impersonation attacks and known session-specific temporary information attacks. Meanwhile, it also violates perfect forward secrecy and anonymity. To overcome the proposed attacks, this paper proposes an enhanced protocol in which the security is verified by the formal analysis and informal analysis, Burross-Abadii-Needham (BAN) logic, and ProVerif tools. The comparison of security and performance proves that our protocol has higher security and lower computational overhead.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5537018
Number of pages15
JournalWireless Communications and Mobile Computing
Publication statusPublished - 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • wireless sensor networks
  • WSNs
  • authentication protocol
  • Burross-Abadii-Needham
  • BAN
  • security


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