A reduction of 3 g/day from a usual 9 g/day salt diet improves endothelial function and decreases endothelin-1 in a randomised cross-over study in normotensive overweight and obese subjects

Kacie Dickinson, Peter Clifton, Jennifer Keogh

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    34 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Background and aim: It is unclear if a modest reduction in dietary salt intake has beneficial effects on vascular function. The aim was to compare the effects of 9g salt/day with 6g salt/day intake on measures of vascular function and explore mechanisms of effect in overweight and obese adults. Methods: Twenty-five overweight/obese subjects (BMI 27-40kg/m2) completed a randomised cross-over study of 6 weeks each on a reduced salt (RS) (6g/day) and usual salt diet (US) (9g/day). Flow-mediated-dilatation (FMD), 24h blood pressure (BP), augmentation index (AIx), pulse wave velocity (PWV), plasma and urinary nitrate/nitrite, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), renin, aldosterone and endothelin-1 and vascular adhesion molecules were measured after 2 days and 6 weeks. Adherence to the diets was determined from two 24h urine collections. Results: Urinary sodium excretion was 155±58 mmol/24h US vs 113±45mmol/24h RS (p=0.002). Following the RS diet there was a significant improvement in FMD from 3.5±2.8% to 5.6±2.8% (P<0.001) and decrease in serum endothelin-1 from 1.45±0.38pg/ml to 1.25±0.39pg/ml (P<0.05). Endothelium-independent vasodilatation was also significantly different between treatments (P<0.05). AIx, PWV, serum ADMA and plasma and urinary nitrate/nitrite concentrations were not different between treatments. Change in FMD was related to the urinary sodium: creatinine ratio (r=-0.47, P<0.05) and was independent of blood pressure. Aldosterone and renin were unchanged. Conclusions: A small reduction in dietary salt intake of 3g/day improves endothelial function in normotensive overweight and obese subjects. This response may be mediated by serum endothelin-1. This small reduction in salt had no effect on aldosterone and renin concentrations.This trial was registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry Unique Identifier: ACTRN12609000321246 http://www.anzctr.org.au/ACTRN12609000321246.aspx.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)32-38
    Number of pages7
    JournalAtherosclerosis
    Volume233
    Issue number1
    Early online date2014
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Mar 2014

    Keywords

    • Aldosterone
    • Dietary salt
    • Dietary sodium
    • Endothelial function
    • Endothelin-1
    • Renin

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