A review of candidate urinary biomarkers for autism spectrum disorder

L Wang, Manya Angley, Jacobus Gerber, Michael Sorich

    Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

    30 Citations (Scopus)


    Context: Autism is a complex, heterogeneous neurodevelopmental condition with a strong genetic component potentially impacted by various environmental factors influencing susceptibility. There are no reliable laboratory tests available to confirm an autism diagnosis. Objective: To examine the published literature and identify putative urinary biomarkers of autism. Methods: A comprehensive literature search was conducted using electronic bibliographic databases. Results: Putative autism biomarkers were identified that could be categorized according to the key theories that exist regarding the etiology of autism: gastrointestinal factors, immune dysregulation, heavy metal toxicity, neurotransmitter abnormalities, and oxidative stress. Conclusion: There is scope for specific urinary biomarkers to be useful for identification of autistic metabolic phenotypes.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)537-552
    Number of pages16
    Issue number7
    Publication statusPublished - Nov 2011


    • Etiology
    • gastrointestinal factors
    • heavy metal toxicity
    • immune dysregulation
    • neurotransmitters
    • oxidative stress


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