A review of Strongyloides spp. Environmental sources worldwide

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Strongyloides spp. are parasitic nematodes that are transmitted through the environment and are capable of causing disease. These nematodes affect an estimated 3–300 million humans worldwide. Identifying the environmental reservoirs of Strongyloides spp. is essential for the development of appropriate control strategies. This systematic literature review examined all published studies that identified Strongyloides stercoralis, Strongyloides fuelleborni, Strongyloides fuelleborni kellyi, and Strongyloides spp. from an environmental source. Most studies detected the nematode from dog and primate fecal samples. Other environmental sources identified were ruminants, cats, rodents, insects, water, soil, as well as fruit and vegetables. Most studies used microscopy-based identification techniques; however, several employed molecular-based techniques, which have become increasingly popular for the detection of Strongyloides spp. A limitation identified was a lack of studies that comprehensively screened all potential environmental samples in a region. Future research should undertake this holistic screening process to identify which environmental reservoirs pose the greatest significance to human health. Potential controls can be identified through the identification of environmental sources. Understanding where Strongyloides spp. is commonly found within the environment of endemic areas will inform environmental control strategies to reduce this neglected disease.

Original languageEnglish
Article number91
Number of pages28
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2019

Bibliographical note

© 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).


  • Environmental reservoirs
  • Strongyloides fuelleborni
  • Strongyloides spp
  • Strongyloides stercoralis
  • Strongyloidiasis


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