'A spinach with a V on it': What 3-year-olds see in standard and enhanced Blissymbols

P. Raghavendra, M. Fristoe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


To aid young children in learning and using Blissymbols, the characters are often enhanced by the drawing of additional components. Thirty standard or 30 enhanced Blissymbols, designed to represent familiar actions (10), attributes (10), and objects/entities (10), were shown to 20 normal 3-year-old children, who were asked to guess what they mean. Their responses were examined to learn what children perceive when they see such symbols. They mainly identified perceptual features and related elements of symbols to something with which they were familiar. The number of their guesses that referred to the embellishments of the enhanced Blissymbols was twice as great as the number that referred to the standard Blissymbol base. The results are discussed in terms of the role of enhancements and possible applications to symbol introduction, as well as an early glimpse at emerging literacy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)149-159
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Speech and Hearing Disorders
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Feb 1990
Externally publishedYes


Dive into the research topics of ''A spinach with a V on it': What 3-year-olds see in standard and enhanced Blissymbols'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this