A Survey on Device-free Indoor Localization and Tracking in the Multi-resident Environment

Kan Ngamakeur, Sira Yongchareon, Jian Yu, Saeed Ur Rehman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

24 Citations (Scopus)


Indoor device-free localization and tracking can bring both convenience and privacy to users compared with traditional solutions such as camera-based surveillance and RFID tag-based tracking. Technologies such as Wi-Fi, wireless sensor, and infrared have been used to localize and track people living in care homes and office buildings. However, the presence of multiple residents introduces further challenges, such as the ambiguity in sensor measurements and target identity, to localization and tracking. In this article, we survey the latest development of device-free indoor localization and tracking in the multi-resident environment. We first present the fundamentals of device-free localization and tracking. Then, we discuss and compare the technologies used in device-free indoor localization and tracking. After discussing the steps involved in multi-resident localization and tracking including target detection, target counting, target identification, localization, and tracking, the techniques related to each step are classified and discussed in detail along with the performance metrics. Finally, we identify the research gap and point out future research directions. To the best of our knowledge, this survey is the most comprehensive work that covers a wide spectrum of the research area of device-free indoor localization and tracking.
Original languageEnglish
Article number71
Number of pages29
JournalACM Computing Surveys (CSUR)
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2020


  • surveillance
  • RFID tag
  • device-free indoor localization
  • tracking
  • multi-resident environment
  • privacy
  • indoor tracking
  • non-intrusive
  • indoor localization
  • multi-resident
  • Device-free


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