A systematic review of validated sinus surgery simulators

Benjamin Stew, Stephen Kao, Nuwan Dharmawardana, Eng Ooi

    Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

    5 Citations (Scopus)


    Background: Simulation provides a safe and effective opportunity to develop surgical skills. A variety of endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) simulators has been described in the literature. Validation of these simulators allows for effective utilisation in training. Objective of review: To conduct a systematic review of the published literature to analyse the evidence for validated ESS simulation. Search strategy: Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane and Cinahl were searched from inception of the databases to 11 January 2017. Evaluation method: Twelve thousand five hundred and sixteen articles were retrieved of which 10 112 were screened following the removal of duplicates. Thirty-eight full-text articles were reviewed after meeting search criteria. Evidence of face, content, construct, discriminant and predictive validity was extracted. Results: Twenty articles were included in the analysis describing 12 ESS simulators. Eleven of these simulators had undergone validation: 3 virtual reality, 7 physical bench models and 1 cadaveric simulator. Seven of the simulators were shown to have face validity, 7 had construct validity and 1 had predictive validity. None of the simulators demonstrated discriminate validity. Conclusion: This systematic review demonstrates that a number of ESS simulators have been comprehensively validated. Many of the validation processes, however, lack standardisation in outcome reporting, thus limiting a meta-analysis comparison between simulators.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)812-822
    Number of pages11
    JournalClinical Otolaryngology
    Issue number3
    Publication statusPublished - Jun 2018


    • simulator
    • sinus
    • surgery
    • validation


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