A typhoid fever protein capsular matrix vaccine candidate formulated with Advax-CpG adjuvant induces a robust and durable anti-typhoid Vi polysaccharide antibody response in mice, rabbits and nonhuman primates

Yoshikazu Honda-Okubo, Robert T. Cartee, Ann Thanawastien, Jae Seung Yang, Kevin P. Killeen, Nikolai Petrovsky

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Typhax is an investigational typhoid fever vaccine candidate that is comprised of Vi polysaccharide from Salmonella enterica serovar typhi (S. Typhi) non-covalently entrapped in a glutaraldehyde catalyzed, cross-linked α-poly-L-lysine and CRM197 protein matrix. A previous Phase 1 trial of an aluminum phosphate adjuvanted Typhax formulation showed it induced Vi IgG after a single dose but that subsequent doses failed to further boost Vi IgG levels. The current study asked whether Advax-CpG adjuvant might instead be able to overcome polysaccharide-induced immune inhibition and improve Typhax immunogenicity. Advax-CpG adjuvanted Typhax elicited high and sustained Vi IgG responses in mice, rabbits and non-human primates (NHP) with levels being boosted by repeated immunization. High Vi antibody responses were lost in CD4 + T cell depleted mice confirming that despite the lack of conjugation of the polysaccharide to the carrier protein, Typhax nevertheless acts in a T cell dependent manner, explaining its ability to induce long-term B cell memory responses to Vi capable of being boosted. In NHP, Advax-CpG adjuvanted Typhax induced up to 100-fold higher Vi IgG levels than the commercial Typhim Vi polysaccharide vaccine. Typhax induced high and sustained serum bactericidal activity against S. Typhi and stimulated robust Vi IgG responses even in animals previously primed with a pure polysaccharide vaccine. Hence Advax-CpG adjuvanted Typhax vaccine is a highly promising candidate to provide robust and durable protection against typhoid fever.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4625-4634
Number of pages10
JournalVaccine
Volume40
Issue number32
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 30 Jul 2022

Keywords

  • Salmonella
  • Salmonella Enterica Serovar Typhi
  • Typhoid Fever

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