Acidobacteria is a predominant bacterial phylum in tropical agricultural soils, including sugarcane cultivated soils. The increased need for fertilizers due to the expansion of sugarcane production is a threat to the ability of the soil to maintain its potential for self-regulation in the long term, in witch carbon degradation has essential role. In this study, a culture-independent approach based on high-throughput DNA sequencing and microarray technology was used to perform taxonomic and functional profiling of the Acidobacteria community in a tropical soil under sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) that was supplemented with nitrogen (N) combined with vinasse. These analyses were conducted to identify the subgroup-level responses to chemical changes and the carbon (C) degradation potential of the different Acidobacteria subgroups. Eighteen Acidobacteria subgroups from a total of 26 phylogenetically distinct subgroups were detected based on high-throughput DNA sequencing, and 16 gene families associated with C degradation were quantified using Acidobacteria-derived DNA microarray probes. The subgroups Gp13 and Gp18 presented the most positive correlations with the gene families associated with C degradation, especially those involved in hemicellulose degradation. However, both subgroups presented low abundance in the treatment containing vinasse. In turn, the Gp4 subgroup was the most abundant in the treatment that received vinasse, but did not present positive correlations with the gene families for C degradation analyzed in this study. The metabolic potential for C degradation of the different Acidobacteria subgroups in sugarcane soil amended with N and vinasse can be driven in part through the increase in soil nutrient availability, especially calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), aluminum (Al), boron (B) and zinc (Zn). This soil management practice reduces the abundance of Acidobacteria subgroups, including those potentially involved with C degradation in this agricultural soil.
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