Hypertension is a major risk factor for the development of serious complications affecting the heart, brain, kidneys and the vascular system, leading to death and disability on a huge scale globally. This manuscript deals primarily with the clinical strategy for the control of hypertension and only refers in passing to the population strategy and primary prevention. It also concentrates on essential hypertension and does not deal with the diagnosis and management of secondary causes of hypertension. Rather, the paper describes the clinical evaluation, laboratory investigations and management of the patient with essential hypertension. The focus of management is on patients with mild and moderate hypertension, without any discussion of the treatment of more sever hypertension, malignant hypertension or hypertensive encephalopathy. Accordingly, the emphasis is on lifestyle factors important in both prevention and treatment of hypertension and on the drug treatment of patients with elevated blood pressures in routine clinical practice. The paper does not cover special populations or problems such as hypertension of pregnancy or hypertension in children.