Age-related risk factors and severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Mohammad Meshbahur Rahman, Badhan Bhattacharjee, Zaki Farhana, Mohammad Hamiduzzaman, Muhammad Abdul Baker Chowdhury, Mohammad Sorowar Hossain, Mahbubul H. Siddiqee, Ziaul Islam, Enayetur Raheem, Jamal Uddin

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Objectives. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of reported symptoms and comorbidities, and investigate the factors associated with age of the SARS-CoV-2 infected patients.

Methods. We performed a systematic review with meta-analysis (PROSPERO registration: CRD42020182677) where the databases (PubMed, SCOPUS, EMBASE, WHO, Semantic Scholar, and COVID-19 Primer) were searched for clinical studies published from January to April, 2020. Initially, the pooled prevalence of symptoms and comorbidity of COVID-19 patients were estimated using random effect model and the age –related factors were identified performing multivariate analysis [factor analysis].

Results. Twenty-nine articles with 4,884 COVID-19 patients were included in this study. Altogether, we found 33 symptoms and 44 comorbidities where the most frequent 19 symptoms and 11 comorbidities were included in the meta-analysis. The fever (84%), cough/dry cough (61%), and fatigue/weakness (42%) were found more prevalent while acute respiratory distress syndrome, hypertension and diabetes were the most prevalent comorbid condition. The factor analysis showed positive association between a cluster of symptoms and comorbidities with patients’ age. The symptoms comprising fever, dyspnea/shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dizziness, anorexia and pharyngalgia; and the comorbidities including diabetes, hypertension, coronary heart disease, COPD/lung disease and ARDS were the factors positively associated with COVID-19 patient’s age.

Conclusion. As an unique effort, this study found a group of symptoms (fever, dyspnea/shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dizziness, anorexia and pharyngalgia) and comorbidities (diabetes, hypertension, coronary heart disease, COPD/lung disease and ARDS), associated with the age of COVID-19 infected patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)E329-E371
Number of pages43
JournalJournal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
Volume62
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2021
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Age-related risk factors
  • Correlation analysis
  • COVID-19 pandemic
  • Symptoms and comorbidities
  • Systematic review

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