We have previously shown that airway hypocapnia induced bronchoconstriction in the guinea pig lung by releasing tachykinins. To examine whether airway hypocapnia could also cause an increase in airway microvascular leakage, a tracheal segment was isolated in vivo in anesthetized guinea pigs and unidirectionally ventilated (200 ml/min) for 1 h with fully conditioned air (0% CO2) or isocapnic gas (5% CO2). The lungs were ventilated through a distally placed tracheal cannula. Microvascular leakage was quantitated by the injection of Evans blue (EB) and its extraction from the tracheal segment. EB extravasation was increased in tracheae exposed to 0% CO2 (52.3 ± 2.0 μg/g wet tissue) compared with tracheae exposed to 5% CO2 (26.4 ± 2.9 μg/g; p < 0.05) and to tracheae from spontaneously breathing guinea pigs (25.2 ± 2.3 μg/g; p < 0.05). Groups of animals in which trachea were unidirectionally ventilated with 0% CO2 were then pretreated with a range of drugs in an attempt to determine the mediators responsible for the microvascular leakage with 0% CO2. Capsaicin and morphine pretreatment did not significantly alter 0% CO2- induced EB extravasation, and phosphoramidon prevented rather than increased extravasation, suggesting that tachykinins did not play a role. The hypocapnia-induced increase in microvascular leakage was, however, prevented by indomethacin pretreatment and significantly attenuated by dazmegrel, a thromboxane synthetase inhibitor. We conclude that airway hypocapnia causes microvascular leakage in the guinea pig trachea and that this effect is mediated by prostaglandins and/or thromboxane.