Amplitude modulated wind farm noise relationship with annoyance: A year-long field study

Kristy L. Hansen, Phuc Nguyen, Gorica Micic, Bastien Lechat, Peter Catcheside, Branko Zajamšek

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)


This paper presents results from a one-year study of indoor annoyance and self-reported sleep times for two participants located near different wind farms. Continuous measurements of outdoor and indoor noise and meteorological conditions were taken at each location for the duration of the study. In at least 50% of the annoyance recordings, participants described noise as "swish"or "swoosh."Furthermore, the majority of the annoyance recordings occurred at nighttime and in the early morning. The third quartile of A-weighted indoor sound pressure level [SPL(A)], between 27 and 31 dBA, was associated with an 88% increased probability of annoyance compared to the lowest reference quartile, which was between 12 and 22 dBA [odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals, 7.72 (2.61,22.8), p < 0.001]. The outdoor SPL(A) was also predictive of annoyance but only between 40 and 45 dBA. The outdoor prevalence of amplitude modulation (AM), defined as the percentage of time that AM was detectable by an algorithm for each annoyance period, was also associated with annoyance. Self-reported sleep efficiency (time spent asleep relative to time in bed available for sleep) was significantly associated with nighttime annoyance (β = -0.66, p = 0.02) but only explained a small fraction of the variance (R2 = 5%).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1198-1208
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of the Acoustical Society of America
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2021


  • wind farm
  • Annoyance
  • Noise Relationship


Dive into the research topics of 'Amplitude modulated wind farm noise relationship with annoyance: A year-long field study'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this