Trauma-related rumination is considered one cognitive process that underlies the maintenance of posttraumatic stress. However experimental findings for the effect of trauma-related rumination have been inconclusive and a moderating role of trait rumination has been speculated. Further, existing depression may also interact with trauma-related rumination to increase posttraumatic stress symptoms. The roles of trauma-related rumination, trait rumination and existing depression were therefore investigated. Healthy female participants watched an analogue trauma film and completed either film-related rumination or control inductions involving a distraction and free-thinking task in the first and second experiments, respectively. Participants' frequency of film-related intrusions and associated distress levels were assessed within the initial experimental session, over 1-week after the film and at 1-week follow-up. Induced rumination resulted in greater intrusion-related distress in the second experiment. However no consistent moderations of trait rumination and existing depression were found. Theoretical and clinical implications of findings are discussed.
- comorbid depression
- posttraumatic stress disorder
- trauma film