An Enhanced Multi-Stage Deep Learning Framework for Detecting Malicious Activities From Autonomous Vehicles

Izhar Ahmed Khan, Nour Moustafa, Dechang Pi, Waqas Haider, Bentian Li, Alireza Jolfaei

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

30 Citations (Scopus)


Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), particularly Autonomous Vehicles (AVs), are susceptible to safety and security concerns that impend people's lives. Nothing like manually controlled vehicles, the safekeeping of communications and computing constituents of AVs can be threatened using sophisticated hacking techniques, consequently disrupting AVs from the operative usage in our daily life routines. Once manually controlled vehicles are linked to the Internet, so-called the Internet of Vehicles (IoVs), they would be misused by cyberattacks. In this paper, we present a multi-stage intrusion detection framework to identify intrusions from ITSs and produce low rate of false alarms. The proposed framework can automatically distinguish intrusions in real-time. The proposed framework is based on normal state-based and a deep learning-centered bidirectional Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) architecture to efficiently discover intrusions from the fundamental network gateways and communication networks of AVs. The designed framework is evaluated through two benchmark datasources, that is, the UNSWNB-15 datasource for exterior network communications and the car hacking datasource for in-vehicle communications. The outcomes indicated that the proposed framework achieves high performance that outperforms various current state-of-the-art systems with an accuracy rate of 98.88% for the UNSWNB-15 dataset and 99.11% for the car hacking dataset. Besides, the proposed framework is furthermore capable to detect zero-day (concealed) outbreaks from IoVs networks.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)25469-25478
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Issue number12
Early online date20 Aug 2021
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Automobiles
  • autonomous vehicles
  • Autonomous vehicles
  • Computer crime
  • deep learning.
  • Intelligent transport systems
  • Intrusion detection
  • intrusion detection
  • Security
  • Tools
  • Vehicles
  • deep learning


Dive into the research topics of 'An Enhanced Multi-Stage Deep Learning Framework for Detecting Malicious Activities From Autonomous Vehicles'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this