Almost every abiotic surface of a material is readily colonised by bacteria, algae, and fungi, contributing to the degradation processes of materials. Both biocorrosion and microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) refer to the interaction of microbial cells and their metabolic products, such as exopolymeric substances (EPS), with an abiotic surface. Therefore, biofouling and biodeterioration of manufactured goods have economic and environmental ramifications for the user to tackle or remove the issue. While MIC is typically applied to metallic materials, newly developed and evolving materials frequently succumb to the effects of corrosion, resulting in a range of chemical reactions and transport mechanisms occurring in the material. Recent research on biocorrosion and biofouling of conventional and novel materials is discussed in this paper, showcasing the current knowledge regarding microbial and material interactions that contribute to biocorrosion and biofouling, including biofilms, anaerobic and aerobic environments, microbial assault, and the various roles microorganisms’ play. Additionally, we show the latest analytical techniques used to characterise and identify MIC on materials using a borescope, thermal imaging, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron microscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical and epifluorescence microscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry, and chemometrics.
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