Anti-Müllerian hormone levels in recurrent embryonic miscarriage patients are frequently abnormal, and may affect pregnancy outcomes

Catherine D. McCormack, Shalem Y. Leemaqz, Denise L. Furness, Gustaaf A. Dekker, Claire T. Roberts

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


This prospective cohort study measured anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels in recurrent miscarriage (RM) patients, compared them to a normal population, and assessed the pregnancy outcomes. The RM patients demonstrated AMH levels that were significantly lower than the normal population, both in women aged ≤35 years, and those aged >35 years. AMH percentiles were found to be significantly lower in the study group of RM patients ≤35 years (p< .004) in the 5th and 50th percentiles, and in all percentiles in women >35 years (p< .03), were compared to women from a normal population. Serum AMH levels may reflect quality, and quantity of the remaining oocytes in these patients, and RM patients may have a low ovarian reserve, and a potentially poor oocyte quality, as shown by low circulating AMH. The evaluation of AMH levels in a RM work up may allow realistic counselling and possible ART referral in RM patients.Impact statementWhat is already known on this subject? There is some evidence to show that low AMH levels are associated with recurrent miscarriages and this is thought to be due to a decreased oocyte quality. The AMH levels are lower in the patients with endometriosis, and are often significantly higher in the patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome. Both conditions are independently associated with miscarriages. What the results of this study add? Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels were found to be significantly lower in recurrent miscarriage patients, compared to a normal population. This may be another factor contributing to miscarriages. The spontaneous pregnancy rates in the miscarriage group significantly improved with increasing AMH levels. This may confirm that patients with low AMH levels have poorer quality oocytes, and thus may be considered ‘sub-fertile’. It was also found that the utilisation of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) to achieve a pregnancy was significantly reduced in the groups with a higher serum AMH. What the implications are of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research? Serum AMH levels should be offered to all patients as part of a recurrent miscarriage work up. Detecting the low AMH levels and counselling the patients on these findings may allow them the option of accessing ART. ART may have the ability to expedite conception rates, and with pre-implantation genetic analyses, could possibly select the embryos with the greatest chance of survival. Further research is needed to establish how the decreased AMH levels contribute to recurrent miscarriages.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)623-627
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 4 Jul 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • Anti-Müllerian hormone
  • embryonic losses
  • foetal losses
  • ovarian reserve
  • recurrent miscarriages
  • subfertility


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