Gliadins, seed storage proteins, are popular markers effectively employed for the analysis of common wheat. Gliadin electrophoretic patterns are genotype-specific, reproducible, not dependent on growing conditions and are suitable for germplasm identification complementary to molecular markers. Gliadins have been identified and used in wheat from various countries, but prior to this study little was known about gliadin polymorphism in wheat from Kazakhstan. In this study, 48 alleles of six gliadin-coding loci were identified in 43 cultivars of spring wheat from Northern Kazakhstan. The alleles Gli-A1f, Gli-B1e, Gli-D1a, Gli-A2p, Gli-B2d and Gli-D2e had maximal frequencies in each of the six loci. Identified Gli alleles in the loci formed ‘Gliadin Genetic Formula’ unique for each studied variety, and these were compared to the published data from previously analyzed wheat varieties. Pedigree analysis of 43 varieties studied for gliadin polymorphisms indicated that some Gli alleles were conserved and inherited from the progenitor cultivar Akmolinka 1. In contrast, other Gli alleles were replaced by those from modern germplasms. It is assumed that a higher frequency of gliadin alleles can be associated with the selection of genotypes with improved traits for yield and seed quality in the studied wheat cultivars from Northern Kazakhstan.