Guidance regarding the effect of codeine and its metabolites on foetal development is limited by small studies and inconsistent findings. The primary objective was to use physiologically based pharmacokinetic modelling to investigate the impact of gestational stage and maternal CYP2D6 phenotype on foetal morphine exposure following codeine administration. Full body physiologically based pharmacokinetic models were developed and verified for codeine and morphine using Simcyp (version 19.1). The impact of gestational age and maternal CYP2D6 phenotype on foetal and maternal morphine and codeine exposure following oral codeine administration was modelled in a cohort of 250 pregnant females and foetuses at gestational weeks 0 (mothers only), 6, 12, 24 and 36. Consistent with the known effect on codeine metabolism, a clinically meaningful (> 1.65-fold) increase in foetal morphine AUC was observed in the CYP2D6 UM phenotype cohort compared to the CYP2D6 EM and PM phenotype cohorts. The mean (95% CI) foetal morphine AUC in the CYP2D6 UM cohort of 0.988 (0.902 to 1.073) ng/mL.h was 1.8-fold higher than the CYP2D6 EM cohort of 0.546 (0.492 to 0.600) ng/mL.h (p < 0.001). Despite a 2.8-fold increase in maternal CYP2D6 protein abundance between gestational weeks 6 and 36, the mean foetal morphine AUC in the CYP2D6 EM and UM phenotype cohorts reduced by 1.55- and 1.75-fold, respectively, over this period. Maternal CYP2D6 phenotype is a significant determinant of foetal morphine AUC. Simulations suggest that the greatest risk with respect to foetal morphine exposure is during the first trimester of pregnancy, particularly in CYP2D6 UM phenotype mothers.
- model informed precision dosing
- physiologically based pharmacokinetics