Archaeological evidence for two separate dispersals of Neanderthals into southern Siberia

Kseniya A. Kolobova, Richard G. Roberts, Victor P. Chabai, Zenobia Jacobs, Maciej T. Krajcarz, Alena V. Shalagina, Andrey I. Krivoshapkin, Bo Li, Thorsten Uthmeier, Sergey V. Markin, Mike Morley, Kieran O’Gorman, Natalia A. Rudaya, Sahra Talamo, Bence Viola, Anatoly P. Derevianko

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Neanderthals were once widespread across Europe and western Asia. They also penetrated into the Altai Mountains of southern Siberia, but the geographical origin of these populations and the timing of their dispersal have remained elusive. Here we describe an archaeological assemblage from Chagyrskaya Cave, situated in the Altai foothills, where around 90,000 Middle Paleolithic artifacts and 74 Neanderthal remains have been recovered from deposits dating to between 59 and 49 thousand years ago (age range at 95.4% probability). Environmental reconstructions suggest that the Chagyrskaya hominins were adapted to the dry steppe and hunted bison. Their distinctive toolkit closely resembles Micoquian assemblages from central and eastern Europe, including the northern Caucasus, more than 3,000 kilometers to the west of Chagyrskaya Cave. At other Altai sites, evidence of earlier Neanderthal populations lacking associated Micoquian-like artifacts implies two or more Neanderthal incursions into this region. We identify eastern Europe as the most probable ancestral source region for the Chagyrskaya toolmakers, supported by DNA results linking the Neanderthal remains with populations in northern Croatia and the northern Caucasus, and providing a rare example of a long-distance, intercontinental population movement associated with a distinctive Paleolithic toolkit.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2879-2885
Number of pages7
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Issue number6
Early online date27 Jan 2020
Publication statusPublished - 11 Feb 2020

Bibliographical note

Copyright © 2020 the Author(s). Published by PNAS. This open access article is distributed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives License 4.0 (CC BY-NC-ND).


  • Chagyrskaya Cave
  • Altai Mountains
  • Siberian Neanderthals
  • MiddlePaleolithic
  • Micoquian artifacts
  • Middle Paleolithic


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