Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning Applied at the Point of Care

Zuzanna Angehrn, Liina Haldna, Anthe S. Zandvliet, Eva Gil Berglund, Joost Zeeuw, Billy Amzal, S. Y.Amy Cheung, Thomas M. Polasek, Marc Pfister, Thomas Kerbusch, Niedre M. Heckman

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)
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Introduction: The increasing availability of healthcare data and rapid development of big data analytic methods has opened new avenues for use of Artificial Intelligence (AI)- and Machine Learning (ML)-based technology in medical practice. However, applications at the point of care are still scarce. Objective: Review and discuss case studies to understand current capabilities for applying AI/ML in the healthcare setting, and regulatory requirements in the US, Europe and China. Methods: A targeted narrative literature review of AI/ML based digital tools was performed. Scientific publications (identified in PubMed) and grey literature (identified on the websites of regulatory agencies) were reviewed and analyzed. Results: From the regulatory perspective, AI/ML-based solutions can be considered medical devices (i.e., Software as Medical Device, SaMD). A case series of SaMD is presented. First, tools for monitoring and remote management of chronic diseases are presented. Second, imaging applications for diagnostic support are discussed. Finally, clinical decision support tools to facilitate the choice of treatment and precision dosing are reviewed. While tested and validated algorithms for precision dosing exist, their implementation at the point of care is limited, and their regulatory and commercialization pathway is not clear. Regulatory requirements depend on the level of risk associated with the use of the device in medical practice, and can be classified into administrative (manufacturing and quality control), software-related (design, specification, hazard analysis, architecture, traceability, software risk analysis, cybersecurity, etc.), clinical evidence (including patient perspectives in some cases), non-clinical evidence (dosing validation and biocompatibility/toxicology) and other, such as e.g. benefit-to-risk determination, risk assessment and mitigation. There generally is an alignment between the US and Europe. China additionally requires that the clinical evidence is applicable to the Chinese population and recommends that a third-party central laboratory evaluates the clinical trial results. Conclusions: The number of promising AI/ML-based technologies is increasing, but few have been implemented widely at the point of care. The need for external validation, implementation logistics, and data exchange and privacy remain the main obstacles.

Original languageEnglish
Article number759
Number of pages12
JournalFrontiers in Pharmacology
Publication statusPublished - 18 Jun 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning in medical practice
  • chronic disease management
  • clinical decision support tools
  • model-informed precision dosing
  • precision dosing
  • real-world evidence
  • software as a medical device


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