Asian Englishes Today

Kingsley Bolton, Werner Botha, Andy Kirkpatrick

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


As is well known, from the 1980s onward, Braj B. Kachru proposed an approach to
scholarship on English worldwide based on the “Three Circles” model, which
included the Inner Circle (countries where English is the “first language” of a
majority of the population, for example, the UK, the United States, Canada,
Australia, and New Zealand); the Outer Circle (where English is regarded as a
“second language,” for example, India or the Philippines); and the Expanding
Circle (where English has typically had the status of a “foreign language,” for
example, China or Japan).
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationThe Handbook of Asian Englishes
EditorsKingsley Bolton, Werner Botha, Andy Kirkpatrick
Place of PublicationNew Jersey
PublisherJohn Wiley & Sons
Number of pages11
ISBN (Electronic)9781118791653, 9781118791790
ISBN (Print)9781118791806
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2020

Publication series

NameBlackwell Handbooks in Linguistics


  • Asian Englishes
  • "Three Circles"
  • Foreign Language


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