Assessment of salt intake to consider salt as a fortification vehicle for thiamine in Cambodia

Kathleen Chan, Jelisa Gallant, Shalem Leemaqz, Dare A. Baldwin, Mam Borath, Hou Kroeun, Jeffrey R. Measelle, Rem Ngik, Sophonneary Prak, Frank T. Wieringa, Lisa N. Yelland, Tim J. Green, Kyly C. Whitfield

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)
1 Downloads (Pure)


Thiamine deficiency is a public health issue in Cambodia. Thiamine fortification of salt has been proposed; however, the salt intake of lactating women, the target population, is currently unknown. We estimated salt intakes among lactating women (<6 months postpartum) using three methods: repeat observed-weighed intake records and 24-h urinary sodium excretions (n = 104), and household salt disappearance (n = 331). Usual salt intake was estimated by adjusting for intraindividual intakes using the National Cancer Institute method, and a thiamine salt fortification scenario was modeled using a modified estimated average requirement (EAR) cut-point method. Unadjusted salt intake from observed intakes was 9.3 (8.3–10.3) g/day, which was not different from estimated salt intake from urinary sodium excretions, 9.0 (8.4–9.7) g/day (P = 0.3). Estimated salt use from household salt disappearance was 11.3 (10.7–11.9) g/person/day. Usual (adjusted) salt intake from all sources was 7.7 (7.4–8.0) g/day. Assuming no stability losses, a modeled fortification dose of 275 mg thiamine/kg salt could increase thiamine intakes from fortified salt to 2.1 (2.0–2.2) mg/day, with even low salt consumers reaching the EAR of 1.2 mg/day from fortified salt alone. These findings, in conjunction with future sensory and stability research, can inform a potential salt fortification program in Cambodia.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)85-95
Number of pages11
JournalAnnals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • beriberi
  • fortification
  • human milk
  • salt
  • thiamine
  • urinary sodium


Dive into the research topics of 'Assessment of salt intake to consider salt as a fortification vehicle for thiamine in Cambodia'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this