Association between breakfast frequency and physical activity and sedentary time: A cross-sectional study in children from 12 countries

Julia Kirstey Zakrzewski-Fruer, Fiona Bridget Gillison, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Emily F. Mire, Stephanie T. Broyles, Catherine M. Champagne, Jean Philippe Chaput, Kara D. Denstel, Mikael Fogelholm, Gang Hu, Estelle Victoria Lambert, Carol Ann Maher, José António Maia, Tim Olds, Vincent Ochieng Onywera, Olga Sarmiento, Mark S. Tremblay, Catrine E. Tudor- Locke, Martyn Standage, Denise G. LambertTiago V. Barreira, Ben P. Butitta, Shannon H. Cocreham, Katy Drazba, Deirdre Deirdre M. Harrington, William D. Johnson, Dione Milauskas, Allison Tohme, Ruben Q. Rodarte, Bobby Amoroso, John Luopa, Rebecca H. Neiberg, Scott Rushing, Tim Olds, Lucy Kate Lewis, Katia Ferrar, Effie Georgiadis, Rebecca Megan Stanley, Victor Keihan Matsudo, Sandra Mahecha Matsudo, Timóteo Leandro Araújo, Luís Carlos De Oliveira, Leandro Rezende, Luis Fabiano, Diogo Bezerra, Gerson Luis Ferrari, Priscilla Bélanger, Michael Marc Borghese, Charles Boyer, Allana G.W. LeBlanc, Claire E. Francis, Geneviève Leduc, Pei Zhao Hu, Chengming Diao, Wei Li, Weiqin Li, Enquing qing Liu, Gongshu Liu, Hongyan Liu, Jian Ma, Yijuan Qiao, Huiguang Tian, Yue Wang, Tao Zhang, Fuxia Zhang, Julio Acosta, Yalta Alvira, María Paula Díaz, Rocio Gámez, Maria Paula Garcia, Luis Guillermo Gómez, Lisseth Heras González, Silvia A. González, Carlos Grijalba, Leidys Gutiérrez, David Leal, Nicolás Lemus, Etelvina Mahecha, Maria Paula Mahecha, Rosalba Mahecha, Andrea Ramírez Varela, Paola Ríos, Andres Suarez, Camilo A. Triana, Elli Hovi, Jemina Kivelä, Sari M. Räsänen, Sanna Roito, Taru Saloheimo, Leena Valta, Anura Vishwanath Kurpad, Rebecca Kuriyan, Deepa P. Lokesh, Michelle Stephanie D'Almeida, R. Annie Mattilda, Lygia F.M. Correa, D. Vijay, Lucy Joy Wachira, Stella Kagwiria Muthuri, Alessandra Da Silva Borges, Sofia Oliveira Cachada, Raquel Nichele De Chaves, Thayse Natacha Gomes, Sara Isabel Pereira, Daniel Monteiro De Vilhena E Santos, Fernanda Karina Dos Santos, Pedro Gil Da Silva, Michele Caroline De Souza, Vicki E. Lambert, Matthew April, Monika Uys, Nirmala Naidoo, Nandi Synyanya, Madelaine T. Carstens, Sean P. Cumming, Clemens Drenowatz, Lydia G. Emm, Julia Kirstey Zakrzewski, Ashley Braud, Sheletta G. Donatto, Corbin Lemon, Ana Jackson, Ashunti Pearson, Gina Pennington, Daniel Ragus, Ryan C. Roubion, John M. Schuna, Derek Wiltz, Alan Mark Batterham, Jacqueline Kerr, Michael W. Pratt, Angelo Pietrobelli

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4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Existing research has documented inconsistent findings for the associations among breakfast frequency, physical activity (PA), and sedentary time in children. The primary aim of this study was to examine the associations among breakfast frequency and objectively-measured PA and sedentary time in a sample of children from 12 countries representing a wide range of human development, economic development and inequality. The secondary aim was to examine interactions of these associations between study sites. Methods: This multinational, cross-sectional study included 6228 children aged 9-11 years from the 12 International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment sites. Multilevel statistical models were used to examine associations between self-reported habitual breakfast frequency defined using three categories (breakfast consumed 0 to 2 days/week [rare], 3 to 5 days/week [occasional] or 6 to 7 days/week [frequent]) or two categories (breakfast consumed less than daily or daily) and accelerometry-derived PA and sedentary time during the morning (wake time to 1200 h) and afternoon (1200 h to bed time) with study site included as an interaction term. Model covariates included age, sex, highest parental education, body mass index z-score, and accelerometer waking wear time. Results: Participants averaged 60 (s.d. 25) min/day in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), 315 (s.d. 53) min/day in light PA and 513 (s.d. 69) min/day sedentary. Controlling for covariates, breakfast frequency was not significantly associated with total daily or afternoon PA and sedentary time. For the morning, frequent breakfast consumption was associated with a higher proportion of time in MVPA (0.3%), higher proportion of time in light PA (1.0%) and lower min/day and proportion of time sedentary (3.4 min/day and 1.3%) than rare breakfast consumption (all p ≤ 0.05). No significant associations were found when comparing occasional with rare or frequent breakfast consumption, or daily with less than daily breakfast consumption. Very few significant interactions with study site were found. Conclusions: In this multinational sample of children, frequent breakfast consumption was associated with higher MVPA and light PA time and lower sedentary time in the morning when compared with rare breakfast consumption, although the small magnitude of the associations may lack clinical relevance. Trial registration: The International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment (ISCOLE) is registered at (Identifier NCT01722500).

Original languageEnglish
Article number222
JournalBMC Public Health
Volume19
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 21 Feb 2019

Keywords

  • Exercise
  • Fasting
  • Health
  • International
  • Nutrition
  • Youth

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