Associations Between Mode of Birth and Neuropsychological Development in Children Aged 4 Years: Results from a Birth Cohort Study

Lea Takács, Samuel P. Putnam, Catherine Monk, Hannah G. Dahlen, Charlene Thornton, František Bartoš, Anastasia Topalidou, Lilian L. Peters

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)
5 Downloads (Pure)


The aim of this prospective longitudinal study was to examine the association between Cesarean section (CS) and child development and behavior. The sample consisted of 256 children who were born at term without serious perinatal pathologies. Their development and behavior was assessed at the age of four using Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ-3), Children’s Behavior Questionnaire and Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire. Multivariate linear regression analyses were conducted to assess the association between CS and child outcomes. CS was associated with better scores in the Problem Solving domain of the ASQ in the whole sample. After stratifying by child sex, the positive association between CS and the Problem Solving domain was significant in boys, while no association was found in girls. Girls were rated less optimally in the Gross Motor domain of the ASQ when born via CS. Mode of birth was not associated with behavioral outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1094-1105
Number of pages12
JournalChild Psychiatry and Human Development
Issue number6
Early online date31 Oct 2020
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2021
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This study was funded by the Czech Science Foundation, Project GAČR 17-10464S “Perinatal risk factors, maternal competences and child development—A prospective study from prenatal period to pre-school age”. Lea Takács was supported by a grant from the Fulbright Commission in the Czech Republic. This work was supported by the European Regional Development Fund-Project, Creativity and Adaptability as Conditions of the Success of Europe in an Interrelated World (No. CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/16_019/0000734). This project was supported by the Vysočina Region (Czech Republic).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020, The Author(s).

Copyright 2020 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.


  • Behavior
  • Cesarean section
  • Development
  • Pre-school
  • Temperament


Dive into the research topics of 'Associations Between Mode of Birth and Neuropsychological Development in Children Aged 4 Years: Results from a Birth Cohort Study'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this