Consistent with cognitive-behavioural formulations of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD), recent research has supported the association between obsessive-compulsive phenomena, specific dysfunctional beliefs and negative affective states. However, such research has not been conducted across sufficiently different cultural contexts using the same measures in comparable samples. In the present study, university psychology students from Australia and Italy completed questionnaire measures of obsessive-compulsive phenomena, inflated responsibility, perfectionism, guilt, depression, and anxiety. Australian and Italian cultures can be seen to differ in a number of ways that could impact on the pattern of expected interrelations between these measures. Similarities in the factor structure and psychometric properties of the measures were apparent across the two cultural contexts, suggesting the appropriateness of cross-cultural comparisons in the pattern of intercorrelations. Significant interrelations were found between the measure of obsessive-compulsive phenomena, dysfunctional beliefs and negative affect in both cultural contexts. While there were some differences in the specific patterns of interrelations, these were few in number and, generally, could be explained by sociocultural factors or stereotypes, although the overall pattern of intercorrelations was stronger for the Australian cohort. The results suggest that cognitive-behavioural formulations of OCD can be generalized across these two different cultural contexts, although idiosyncratic cultural factors may need to be considered in developing cognitive-behavioural treatments.