Scotland's impact across the world undoubtedly stretched to the Antipodes particularly, but not only, in the colonial era. Under the "canopy of Empire", Australia and Scotland were linked by migration, trade, capital movements and by cultural ties. But these were all two-way ties. They did not simply colour the "Australian civilisation". Rather there was a vital and shifting reciprocation between Scotland and Australia. The relationship between them has mainly been determined by their different economic trajectories. Today financial and skilled human capital move each way between the two countries with heightened velocity and efficiency. These flows, along with continuing cultural connections, enmesh two fully developed modern economies.