19世纪德国人类学视域中的澳大利亚原住民

Translated title of the contribution: Australian Aborigines in the Perspective of German Anthropology in the 19th Century

Peter Monteath, Wang Hui, Lui Wenming

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    Abstract

    有观点认为19世纪德国人对待澳大利亚原住民时,只有一种独特的认知方式,本文辩驳的正是这一观点。恰恰相反,实际上存在多种不同的理解和认知路径,在某些层面它们相互矛盾。本文探讨德国人类学中两大主要且颇有影响力的范式。其中一种范式认为非欧洲的"他者"也有普遍的人性,这是基础,因此要努力去理解"他者"的脑海世界,尤其要借助语言和文化来理解。另一范式倾向于使用一种经验的、科学的方式来研究人类,这一范式大致可称为"反人文主义的";它认为人类族群之间的差异关乎体格构造,是本质性的,而不是文化方面的。19世纪末期,传教士兼人类学家卡尔·施特劳和受过医药学训练的人类学家埃尔哈德·埃尔曼在澳大利亚分别使用这两种范式,德国人类学中这两种范式之间的差异从他们这里表现出来。

    This paper rejects the idea that there is just one distinctively German understanding of Aboriginal people in Australia in the nineteenth century. On the contrary, there were different understandings and approaches which in some regards stood in contradiction to each other. The development of two major and influential paradigms in German anthropology is explored. One is a paradigm which is based on the recognition of the common humanity of the non-European "other"and therefore attempts to understand the mental world of the" other", especially through language and culture. The other paradigm adopts an empirical, scientific approach to the study of human beings which might be labelled " antihumanist"; it interprets difference between peoples as physical and essential, not cultural. At the end of the nineteenth century, the development of these two different paradigms in German anthropology can be illustrated by the contrasting approaches adopted in Australia by the missionary anthropologist Carl Strehlow and the medically-trained anthropologist Erhard Eylmann
    Translated title of the contributionAustralian Aborigines in the Perspective of German Anthropology in the 19th Century
    Original languageChinese
    Pages (from-to)53-68
    Number of pages16
    JournalGlobal History Review
    Volume2017
    Issue number2
    Publication statusPublished - 2017

    Keywords

    • German anthropology
    • History
    • 19th century
    • Aboriginal Australians
    • Anti-humanism

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