Australian adolescent population norms for the child health utility index 9D: results from the young minds matter survey

Long Khanh Dao Le, Scott Richards-Jones, Mary Lou Chatterton, Lidia Engel, David Lawrence, Chris Stevenson, Genevieve Pepin, Julie Ratcliffe, Michael Sawyer, Cathrine Mihalopoulos

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: Patient-reported outcomes of health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) are important descriptors of population health. A recent Australian adolescent population survey provided a unique opportunity to derive preference-based HRQoL. Methods: Data from 2967 adolescents aged 11–17 years were analysed. An interviewer-led parent/carer questionnaire was administered for demographic variables and mental disorders of adolescents during previous 12 months using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children. A self-report survey was administered to derive HRQoL using the child health utility nine-dimensions instrument (CHU-9D). Weighted HRQoL was derived for several demographic groups, mental disorder diagnosis, and youth risk behaviours. Results: The total population had a mean utility of 0.78 [standard deviation (SD): 0.20]. Males had a significantly higher mean utility (0.81, SD 0.18) than females (0.76, SD: 0.21) (Cohen’s d = 0.23, p < 0.001), and utility decreased with age for both males and females (p < 0.001). Family type and some parent/carer variables were associated with significant lower HRQoL scores with small effect size. Youth risk behaviours were associated with reduced HRQoL with moderate effect sizes. Adolescents who self-harmed, had suicidal ideation, or had a mental disorder had significantly lower utilities scores with moderate to large effect sizes compared to those who did not have such conditions. Conclusions: This study has provided contemporary Australian population norms for HRQoL in adolescents that may be used as cross comparison between studies as well as indicators allowing estimation of population health (e.g. estimation of the burden of disease) and can be used to populate future economic models.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2895-2906
Number of pages12
JournalQuality of Life Research
Issue number10
Early online dateMay 2021
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Adolescents
  • Australia
  • CHU-9D
  • Quality-adjusted life year
  • Quality-of-life
  • Utility scores


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