B-Type Natriuretic Peptide Concentrations, COVID-19 Severity, and Mortality: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis With Meta-Regression

Angelo Zinellu, Salvatore Sotgia, Ciriaco Carru, Arduino A. Mangoni

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


Alterations in cardiac biomarkers have been reported in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in relation to disease severity and mortality. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis with meta-regression of studies reporting B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) or N-terminal proBNP (NT-proBNP) plasma concentrations in COVID-19. We searched PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus, between January 2020 and 2021, for studies reporting BNP/NT-proBNP concentrations, measures of COVID-19 severity, and survival status (PROSPERO registration number: CRD42021239190). Forty-four studies in 18,856 COVID-19 patients were included in the meta-analysis and meta-regression. In pooled results, BNP/NT-proBNP concentrations were significantly higher in patients with high severity or non-survivor status when compared to patients with low severity or survivor status during follow up (SMD = 1.07, 95% CI: 0.89–1.24, and p < 0.001). We observed extreme between-study heterogeneity (I2 = 93.9%, p < 0.001). In sensitivity analysis, the magnitude and the direction of the effect size were not substantially modified after sequentially removing individual studies and re-assessing the pooled estimates, (effect size range, 0.99 – 1.10). No publication bias was observed with the Begg’s (p = 0.26) and Egger’s (p = 0.40) t-tests. In meta-regression analysis, the SMD was significantly and positively associated with D-dimer (t = 2.22, p = 0.03), myoglobin (t = 2.40, p = 0.04), LDH (t = 2.38, p = 0.02), and procalcitonin (t = 2.56, p = 0.01) concentrations. Therefore, higher BNP/NT-proBNP plasma concentrations were significantly associated with severe disease and mortality in COVID-19 patients.

Original languageEnglish
Article number690790
Number of pages12
JournalFrontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2021


  • B-type natriuretic peptide
  • Biomarkers
  • COVID-19
  • Disease severity
  • Mortality


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