Beyond K-complex binary scoring during sleep: Probabilistic classification using deep learning

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Abstract

Study Objectives: K-complexes (KCs) are a recognized electroencephalography marker of sensory processing and a defining feature of sleep stage 2. KC frequency and morphology may also be reflective of sleep quality, aging, and a range of sleep and sensory processing deficits. However, manual scoring of K-complexes is impractical, time-consuming, and thus costly and currently not well-standardized. Although automated KC detection methods have been developed, performance and uptake remain limited. Methods: The proposed algorithm is based on a deep neural network and Gaussian process, which gives the input waveform a probability of being a KC ranging from 0% to 100%. The algorithm was trained on half a million synthetic KCs derived from manually scored sleep stage 2 KCs from the Montreal Archive of Sleep Study containing 19 healthy young participants. Algorithm performance was subsequently assessed on 700 independent recordings from the Cleveland Family Study using sleep stages 2 and 3 data. Results: The developed algorithm showed an F1 score (a measure of binary classification accuracy) of 0.78 and thus outperforms currently available KC scoring algorithms with F1 = 0.2-0.6. The probabilistic approach also captured expected variability in KC shape and amplitude within individuals and across age groups. Conclusions: An automated probabilistic KC classification is well suited and effective for systematic KC detection for a more in-depth exploration of potential relationships between KCs during sleep and clinical outcomes such as health impacts and daytime symptomatology.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberzsaa077
Number of pages10
JournalSLEEP
Volume43
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2020

Keywords

  • Automated scoring
  • Big data
  • Deep learning
  • K-complex
  • Probabilistic output

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