Background - The pivot is critical to rotors postulated to maintain atrial fibrillation (AF). We reasoned that wavefronts circling the pivot should broaden the amplitude distribution of bipolar electrograms because of directional information encoded in these signals. We aimed to determine whether Shannon entropy (ShEn), a measure of signal amplitude distribution, could differentiate the pivot from surrounding peripheral regions and thereby assist clinical rotor mapping. Methods and Results - Bipolar electrogram recordings were studied in 4 systems: (1) computer simulations of rotors in a 2-dimensional atrial sheet; (2) isolated rat atria recorded with a multi-electrode array (n=12); (3) epicardial plaque recordings of induced AF in hypertensive sheep (n=11); and (4) persistent AF patients (n=10). In the model systems, rotation episodes were identified, and ShEn calculated as an index of amplitude distribution. In humans, ShEn distribution was analyzed at AF termination sites and with respect to complex fractionated electrogram mean. We analyzed rotation episodes in simulations (4 cycles) and animals (rats: 14 rotors, duration 80±81 cycles; sheep: 13 rotors, 4.2±1.5 cycles). The maximum ShEn bipole was consistently colocated with the pivot zone. ShEn was negatively associated with distance from the pivot zone in simulated spiral waves, rats, and sheep. ShEn was modestly inversely associated with complex fractionated electrogram; however, there was no relationship at the sites of highest ShEn. Conclusions - ShEn is a mechanistically based tool that may assist AF rotor mapping.
- Atrial fibrillation