The receptor for advanced glycation end-product (RAGE) is the signal transduction receptor which senses a variety of signalling molecules including advanced glycation end products (AGEs), HMGB1, S100/calgranulins, β-amyloid, phosphatidylserine, C3a and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs). It is usually abnormally up-regulated and plays crucial roles during the development of many human diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, osteoarthritis and cancer. RAGE regulates a number of cell processes of pivotal importance like inflammation, apoptosis, proliferation and autophagy. Therapeutic strategies to block RAGE may represent great therapeutic potentials and therefore it has been under extensive investigation during the last decade. Accordingly, there is a growing interest of unraveling the intracellular signalling pathways by which RAGE controls these disease-related processes. Early studies are mainly focused on inflammatory pathways involving the NFκB and the MAPK pathways. Nevertheless, many novel signalling pathways implicated in other cell processes, such as autophagy, have also recently been found to be activated upon RAGE stimulation and contribute to the detrimental effects of RAGE. In this review, we aim to provide a comprehensive summary of previous and recent studies relating to the complex molecular network of RAGE signalling, with a particular emphasis on RAGE transgenic mouse models.
- Advanced glycation end-product