Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with a high risk of cardiovascular disease, but evidence regarding the effectiveness of interventions to reduce that risk is lacking. The Perindopril Protection against Recurrent Stroke Study (PROGRESS) study enrolled 6105 participants with cerebrovascular disease and randomly allocated them to perindopril-based blood pressure-lowering therapy or placebo. Individuals with CKD were at approximately 1.5-fold greater risk of major vascular events, stroke, and coronary heart disease, and were more than twice as likely to die (all P≤0.002). Perindopril-based treatment reduced the risk of major vascular events by 30% and stroke by 35% among subjects with CKD, and the absolute effects of treatment were 1.7-fold greater for those with CKD than for those without. Considering patients with CKD and a history of cerebrovascular disease, perindopril prevented one stroke or other cardiovascular event among every 11 patients treated over five years. In conclusion, kidney function should be considered when determining the need for blood pressure lowering therapy in patients with cerebrovascular disease.