Chronic maternal hypertension characterized by renal dysfunction is associated with reduced placental blood flow during late gestation in rabbits

Adelle M. McArdle, Claire T. Roberts, Devaki Maduwegedera, Rebecca L. Flower, Kate M. Denton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

7 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Maternal hypertension associated with renal disease is a common pregnancy complication. Previously, we have shown in a rabbit model of mild hypertension that offspring from hypertensive mothers have increased blood pressure as adults. In human pregnancy, hypertension has been associated with decreased utero-placental blood flow. The aim of this study was to determine placental blood flow (PBF) in mild (2-kidney-1-wrapped; 2K-1W) and moderate (2-kidney-2-wrapped; 2K-2W) rabbit models of maternal hypertension. We hypothesized that PBF would be inversely related to the severity of the hypertension. PBF and renal blood flow (RBF) were measured using microspheres on day 28 of a 32-day gestation, in normotensive (sham), 2K-1W, and 2K-2W hypertensive groups. Mean arterial pressure (MAP, ∼7 mmHg, P < 0.05) was increased, and RBF (∼35%, P < 0.05) was reduced in the 2K-1W and 2K-2W (MAP ∼20 mmHg, P < 0.01; RBF ∼53%, P < 0.05) groups compared with the sham group. In the 2K-1W group, PBF fell by ∼12% (P = 0.08) and fetal-to-placental weight ratio increased by ∼12% (P < 0.01) compared with the sham group, reflecting an increase in the functional capacity of the placenta to deliver nutrients to the fetus. In the 2K-2W group, PBF decreased ∼51% (P < 0.05) compared with the sham group, without changes in placental efficiency. Thus, in late gestation, placental blood flow was significantly reduced in the moderate hypertension group, without accompanying changes in fetal or placental weight or placental efficiency. In contrast, mild hypertension resulted in an increase in placental efficiency, without significant changes in placental blood flow. These findings suggest that mild and moderate hypertension may alter placental delivery of nutrients via differing mechanisms dependent upon the severity of the hypertension.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)R1043-R1049
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Volume298
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2010
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Hypertension
  • Placental blood flow
  • Rabbit
  • Renal blood flow

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