Classification of Elbow Stiffness

Alessandro Marinelli, Enrico Guerra, Gregory I. Bain, Roberto Rotini

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


The approach to elbow stiffness has evolved significantly over the past two decades. With the progressive increase in the number of elbow release surgeries and treatment options, the need of new classifications has been felt. The authors have developed the S.T.I.F. (Stiffness Types and Influencing Factors) classification system that highlights five common disorders causing stiffness as well as the six influencing factors that often effect the treatment and clinical outcome. This chapter presents a brief overview of various classifications of elbow stiffness and a treatment algorithm for management of this condition.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationArthroscopy and Endoscopy of the Elbow, Wrist and Hand
Subtitle of host publicationSurgical Anatomy and Techniques
EditorsDeepak N. Bhatia, Gregory I. Bain, Gary G. Poehling, Benjamin R. Graves
Place of PublicationSwitzerland
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Number of pages5
ISBN (Electronic)9783030794231
ISBN (Print)9783030794224
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • Capsule
  • Classification
  • Elbow stiffness
  • Heterotopic ossification


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