This chapter aims to understand the human health dimensions of climate change in Nepal. A case study approach was used to describe and quantify the association between climate factors and reported cases of typhoid and other health-related hazards in Nepal along with their impacts and implications. The research findings show that diseases and health-related hazards have increased in the country. There is an association between the incidence of climate-sensitive diseases and changes in temperature and precipitation trends. The study data suggests that climate change is likely to have impacts on the health sector in Nepal; however current adaptation policies, strategies, and response measures in this sector are insufficient to address such impacts. The lack of response measures has resulted in increased risk and vulnerability among the poor and marginalized communities living in both rural and urban areas of Nepal. There is an urgent need to devise policies and strategies to fill the existing information and knowledge gaps and implement an integrated approach for better health planning and research in Nepal, to develop long-term mechanisms of addressing health issues and challenges in urban and rural areas.