Peroxiredoxin 1 (Prx 1), also known as natural killer enhancing factor A (NKEF A), has been implicated in the immune response of both mammals and fish. Amoebic gill disease (AGD), caused by Neoparamoeba perurans, is a significant problem for the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) aquaculture industry based in Tasmania, Australia. Here we have cloned and functionally characterized a Prx 1 open reading frame (ORF) from Atlantic salmon liver and shown that Prx 1 gene expression was down-regulated in the gills of Atlantic salmon displaying symptoms of AGD. The Prx 1 ORF encoded all of the residues and motifs characteristic of typical 2-Cys Prx proteins from eukaryotes and the recombinant protein expressed in Escherichia coli catalyzed thioredoxin (Trx)-dependent reduction of H 2O 2, cumene hydroperoxide (CuOOH) and t-butyl hydroperoxide (t-bOOH) with K m values of 122, 77 and 91 μM, respectively, confirming that it was a genuine 2-Cys Prx. The recombinant protein also displayed a double displacement reaction mechanism and a catalytic efficiency (k cat/K m) with H 2O 2 of 1.5 × 10 5 M -1 s -1 which was consistent with previous reports for the 2-Cys Prx family of proteins. This is the first time that a Prx 1 protein has been functionally characterized from any fish species and it paves the way for further investigation of this important 2-Cys Prx family member in fish.
- Amoebic gill disease
- Atlantic salmon
- Natural killer enhancing factor