Closing the gaps in tobacco endgame evidence: a scoping review

Cheneal Puljević, Kylie Morphett, Marita Hefler, Richard Edwards, Natalie Walker, David P. Thomas, Md Arifuzzaman Khan, Andrew Perusco, Michael Le Grande, Katherine Cullerton, Driss Ait Ouakrim, Georgia Carstensen, David Sellars, Janet Hoek, Ron Borland, Billie Bonevski, Tony Blakely, Claire Brolan, Coral E. Gartner

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

26 Citations (Scopus)


OBJECTIVE: Tobacco endgame policies aim to rapidly and permanently reduce smoking to minimal levels. We reviewed evidence syntheses for: (1) endgame policies, (2) evidence gaps, and (3) future research priorities. DATA SOURCES: Guided by JBI scoping review methodology, we searched five databases (PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, Embase and Web of Science) for evidence syntheses published in English since 1990 on 12 policies, and Google for publications from key national and international organisations. Reference lists of included publications were hand searched. STUDY SELECTION: Two reviewers independently screened titles and abstracts. Inclusion criteria were broad to capture policy impacts (including unintended), feasibility, public and stakeholder acceptability and other aspects of policy implementation. DATA EXTRACTION: We report the results according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews checklist. DATA SYNTHESIS: Eight policies have progressed to evidence synthesis stage (49 publications): mandatory very low nicotine content (VLNC) standard (n=26); product standards to substantially reduce consumer appeal or remove the most toxic products from the market (n=1); moving consumers to reduced risk products (n=8); tobacco-free generation (n=4); ending sales (n=2); sinking lid (n=2); tax increases (n=7); and restrictions on tobacco retailers (n=10). Based on published evidence syntheses, the evidence base was most developed for a VLNC standard, with a wide range of evidence synthesised. CONCLUSIONS: VLNC cigarettes have attracted the most attention, in terms of synthesised evidence. Additional focus on policies that reduce the availability of tobacco is warranted given these measures are being implemented in some jurisdictions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)365-375
Number of pages11
JournalTobacco Control
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2022


  • electronic nicotine delivery devices
  • endgame
  • nicotine
  • public policy


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