Combined Bulk and Surface Passivation in Dimensionally Engineered 2D-3D Perovskite Films via Chlorine Diffusion

Md Arafat Mahmud, Huyen T. Pham, The Duong, Yanting Yin, Jun Peng, Yiliang Wu, Wensheng Liang, Li Li, Anand Kumar, Heping Shen, Daniel Walter, Hieu T. Nguyen, Naeimeh Mozaffari, Grace Dansoa Tabi, Gunther Andersson, Kylie R. Catchpole, Klaus J. Weber, Thomas P. White

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

38 Citations (Scopus)


Dimensional engineering of perovskite films is a promising pathway to improve the efficiency and stability of perovskite solar cells (PSCs). In this context, surface or bulk passivation of defects in 3D perovskite film by careful introduction of 2D perovskite plays a key role. Here the authors demonstrate a 2D perovskite passivation scheme based on octylammonium chloride, and show that it provides both bulk and surface passivation of 1.6 eV bandgap 3D perovskite film for highly efficient (≈23.62%) PSCs with open-circuit voltages up to 1.24 V. Surface and depth-resolved microscopy and spectroscopy analysis reveal that the Cl anion diffuses into the perovskite bulk, passivating defects, while the octylammonium ligands provide effective, localized surface passivation. The authors find that the Cl diffusion into the perovskite lattice is independent of the 2D perovskite crystallization process and occurs rapidly during deposition of the 2D precursor solution. The annealing-induced evaporation of Cl from bulk perovskite is also inhibited in 2D–3D perovskite film as compared to pristine 3D perovskite, ensuring effective bulk passivation in the relevant film.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2104251
Number of pages11
JournalAdvanced Functional Materials
Issue number46
Early online date11 Aug 2021
Publication statusPublished - 10 Nov 2021


  • bulk passivation
  • Cl diffusion
  • mixed dimensional perovskite
  • surface passivation


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