The environmental accumulation of thiamethoxam has increasingly become a risk for the health of aquatic animals, especially crustacean species in the same phylum as the target pests. The lack of knowledge on the toxicity of thiamethoxam to crustaceans motivates our research to study the acute and chronic toxicity of decapod crustaceans Litopenaeus vannamei, exposed to thiamethoxam. A 28-day chronic toxicity test followed a 96 h acute toxicity test. Thiamethoxam induced oxidative stress and decreased growth performance in shrimp. In addition, thiamethoxam has led to a substantial imbalance of the micro-ecosystem in the intestine. The composition of the intestinal flora changed significantly, and the balance of the interaction network in genera was broken. The competitive interaction of many bacteria becomes an unstable cooperative interaction. Transcriptomic analysis showed that the numbers of up- and down-regulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) increased in a dose-dependent manner. These DEGs were significantly enriched in pathways related to detoxification, and the expression of most detoxification genes was upregulated. DEGs related to detoxification were positively correlated with Shimia and negatively correlated with Pseudoalteromonas. This study provides evidence for the first time on the toxic effects of thiamethoxam on the growth, biochemistry, intestinal flora, and transcriptome in crustaceans.
- Antioxidant capacity
- Bacterial interaction network
- Neonicotinoid pesticides