Comparative overview of ST-elevation myocardial infarction epidemiology, demographics, management, and outcomes in five Asia-Pacific countries: a meta-analysis

Paul Jie Wen Tern, Aaron Kwun Hang Ho, Rehena Sultana, Youngkeun Ahn, Wael Almahmeed, David Brieger, Derek P. Chew, Alan Yean Yip Fong, Jinyong Hwang, Yongcheol Kim, Issei Komuro, Koji Maemura, Rosli Mohd-Ali, David Kwang Leng Quek, Christopher Reid, Jack Wei Chieh Tan, Wan Azman Wan-Ahmad, Satoshi Yasuda, Khung Keong Yeo

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)


The aim of this study is to gain insight into the differences in demographics of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients in Asia-Pacific, as well as inter-country variation in treatment and mortality outcomes. Systematic review of published studies and reports from known registries in Australia, Japan, Korea, Singapore, and Malaysia that began data collection after the year 2000. Supplementary self-report survey questionnaire on public health data answered by representative cardiologists working in these countries. Twenty studies comprising of 158 420 patients were included in the meta-analysis. The mean age was 61.6 years. Chronic kidney disease prevalence was higher in Japan, while dyslipidaemia was low in Korea. Use of aspirin, P2Y12 inhibitors, and statins were high throughout, but ACEi/ARB and β-blocker prescriptions were lower in Japan and Malaysia. Reperfusion strategies varied greatly, with high rates of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) in Korea (91.6%), whilst Malaysia relies far more on fibrinolysis (72.6%) than pPCI (9.6%). Similarly, mortality differed, with 1-year mortality from STEMI was considerably greater in Malaysia (17.9%) and Singapore (11.2%) than in Korea (8.1%), Australia (7.8%), and Japan (6.2%). The countries were broadly similar in development and public health indices. Singapore has the highest gross national income and total healthcare expenditure per capita, whilst Malaysia has the lowest. Primary PCI is available in all countries 24/7/365. Despite broadly comparable public health systems, differences exist in patient profile, in-hospital treatment, and mortality outcomes in these five countries. Our study reveals areas for improvements. The authors advocate further registry-based multi-country comparative studies focused on the Asia-Pacific region.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6-17
Number of pages12
JournalEuropean heart journal. Quality of care & clinical outcomes
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2021


  • Asia-Pacific
  • Demographics
  • Mortality
  • Systematic review
  • Treatment


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